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New important study on coffee related to the dehydration

A new research(1) , published in PLOS ONE, showed that drinking a moderate amount of coffee , contrary to popular belief , does not cause dehydration. The study was conducted by researchers at the Faculty of Sport and Exercise Science at the University of Birmingham (UK) .It 's also of interest to know that , prior to the publication of this new study , only two studies (2) had focused on the effects of caffeine hydration , without , however, lead to conclusive results. The present study is the first to directly assess the effects of moderate consumption of coffee and compare them with those of equal volumes of water. Sophie Killer , researcher and lead author of the study, commented : "Our research aims to determine the effects of regular consumption of coffee in the state of hydration of the body , as part of a normal lifestyle. We suspect this is because, despite the lack of scientific evidence , it is widely believed that coffee consumption can cause dehydration . " In a sample of habitual coffee drinkers , Sophie Killer and colleagues measured and compared the effects of moderate consumption of black coffee than equal volumes of water on the water balance and the state of hydration. 50 male participants were divided into two groups and tested in two stages. In the first , was requested , in a group , drinking four cups per day (200 ml) of black coffee and , next, to drink water for three days and , in the second phase , vice versa. The two phases were separated by a period of ' wash out ' of ten days . From the process control female subjects were excluded due to possible fluctuations in fluid balance resulting from menstrual cycles.
 The hydration status was assessed by the researchers on the basis of established criteria of hydration, such as body mass , total body water , blood tests and urine tests . Between the two groups there were no significant differences regarding the state of hydration or to the volume and concentration of the urine within 24 hours. "We found that moderate consumption of coffee - four cups per day in male habitual coffee drinkers - did not lead to significant differences between a wide range of indicators of hydration compared to the consumption of equal amounts of water ," said Sophie Killer . "We conclude that the recommendations in the field of public health , with regard to coffee and dehydration, need to be updated reflecting on these results."
The opinion of the Italian Society of Food Science.
It has always had the feeling , repeated several times in official scientific centers , the problem of a possible significant contribution of coffee to the risk of dehydration was overvalued . This study fully confirms the validity of this feeling. The diuretic effects of coffee, known since 1864 and almost exclusively due to caffeine ( through a variety of mechanisms : increased renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate , increased excretion of sodium, less renal production of cyclic AMP , inhibition of adenosine receptors , etc. . ) are modest. One particular aspect relates to the conduct of sports activities that have a high physical exertion accompanied by intense sweating . Of these aspects have dealt with in recent years several research groups , especially for competitions held in hot-humid climates and for endurance races . The results have made it clear that the suggestion to avoid the consumption of coffee and tea, because of their mild diuretic effect , which was addressed to the athletes along with that ( and obviously correct) to increase your fluid intake , was quite unfounded. Indeed, the negative effects of discontinuing the intake of coffee and tea were rather obvious. And also other works that have examined the relationship between caffeine, electrolyte balance and sports performance , and between ingestion of caffeine, water balance and thermoregulation during exercise, have confirmed the lack of negative effects of caffeine on the parameters considered .
 The study is interesting both because it seeks to bridge the gap represented by the small number of studies on the effects of the drink coffee ( caffeine and not the individual component ) on the state of hydration of the body , both because it uses the method of choice to evaluate changes in fluid body , ie the estimated total body water through the technique of " doubly labeled water dilution" . The results show very clearly that, for normal or moderate consumption of coffee by regular consumers , the problem of " risk of dehydration " does not exist. A single observation : the daily intake of liquids by the participants in the study, calculated on the basis of the average individual intake recorded over the course of three days , was set at 800 ml per day , a low value compared to those of reference water intake for adult males according to the EFSA : 2.5 liters / day. It 's very likely that this limited volume has not in some way influenced , in one way or another , the results , but it would be appropriate that, in the future work on the topic, this aspect is taken into consideration. In conclusion : the fear that a regular coffee consumption may lead to the risk of causing or facilitating fluid and electrolyte imbalance or dehydration , although this sometimes in the collective imagination , it is quite exaggerated and without basis in reality , as demonstrated now further even on an experimental basis .

1 Killer S.C., Blannin A.K. and Jeukendrup A.E. (2014). No evidence of dehydration with moderate daily coffee intake: a counterbalanced crossover
study in a free-living population, PLOS ONE.
2 Neuhauser-Berthold, B.S., Verwied, S.C. and Luhrmann, P.M. (1997a). Coffee consumption and total body water homeostasis as measured by
fluid balance and bioelectrical impedance analysis. Ann Nutr Metab 41:29-36.
Grandjean A, Reimers K, Bannick K, Haven M. The effect of caffeinated, non-caffeinated, caloric and non-caloric beverages on hydration. Journal
of the American College of Nutrition 2000;19(5):591-600.

For alcohol drinkers, coffee consumption may protect liver, according to a Finnish study.

Other previous studies have suggested that drinking coffee may decrease GGT levels, and that caffeine may play a role in this. "We have discovered a possible protective effect for coffee intake in alcohol consumers," said study researcher Dr. Onni Niemelä - University of Tampere in Finland. The scientists have asked to 19 thousands of Finnish between 25 and 70 about their coffee and alcohol consumption. Measuring to everybody the blood levels of the liver enzyme gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT). Drinking alcohol raises levels of GGT in the blood. Over time, drinking can also lead to alcoholic liver disease. People with liver disease show higher levels of GGT in their blood. Men in the study who consumed more than 24 alcoholic drinks per week, or about 3.5 drinks daily, had the highest levels of the liver enzyme, about three times higher than men who did not drink alcohol. But among the men who were heavy drinkers, those who also consumed five or more cups of coffee daily showed a 50 percent reduction in GGT compared with men who drank no coffee. In addition to drinking alcohol, smoking, older age and being overweight can also raise GGT levels. While there were no differences in these variables among heavy drinkers, moderate drinkers, former drinkers and nondrinkers in the study, the researchers cannot say for sure whether some interaction between alcohol and one of these factors affected the results. And participants may not have estimated accurately the amount of coffee and alcohol they drink. The researchers found that the way that coffee was prepared, whether it was filtered, boiled or served as espresso, for example, did not seem to make a difference in the findings. People should not think that drinking more coffee will cancel out the effects of heavy drinking, he said. "We know nothing about whether decreasing levels of the liver enzyme leads to improvements in overall health, or a decreased risk of liver disease", Bernstein has said.

Coffee is healthy helping small blood vessels

According to a study presented at the American Heart Association Scientific Sessions of Dallas , in fact , just the caffeine in a cup of coffee to help the small blood vessels to function better. A Japanese study , conducted on 27 healthy adults , has demonstrated for the first time that a cup of coffee significantly improves the blood flow is detected in a finger , an element that serves to measure the functioning of the small vessels . In particular , the participants after a cup of coffee showed a 30% increase in blood flow during an observation period of 75 minutes, compared with those who drank decaffeinated coffee .

"This gives us a clue as to how coffee can help improve cardiovascular health ," said Masato Tsutsui , cardiologist and researcher in the department of pharmacology at the University of Ryukyus in Okinawa , Japan. The participants were all people who do not drink coffee regularly , between 22 and 30 years. In one day, each volunteer drank a cup of regular coffee or decaf. Then researchers measured blood flow to the finger with laser Doppler flowmetry , a non-invasive technique for measuring the blood circulation in microscopico.Due days after , the experiment was repeated with the other type of coffee. Neither the researchers nor the participants knew when they were drinking caffeinated coffee . Compared to decaffeinated coffee with caffeine slightly raised blood pressure of the participants and improved vascular function . It 's still unclear , however, the mechanism by which caffeine improves the function of small blood vessels. But the researchers intend to investigate further: " Knowing the origin of the positive effects of coffee , could lead to a new treatment strategy for cardiovascular diseases in the future ," said Tsutsui .

Illusory messages for lifestyle drugs and supplements: the market of "lifestyle illusion" is ever more huge all over the world.

Just getting to the consumers that there is a new molecule, talk about its benefits and put to a lesser degree its side effects. So the lifestyle medical illusion becomes a diagnostic tool: in fact, who could answer "I do not need to lose weight"? Or failing to hair problems. At that point may even be your collegue to recommend taking a Citalopram in order not to fall into the usual compulsive shopping. And the complaint of your bedmate will send you at the a miraculous "online pharmacist" to get some Sildenafil?. When will arrive the pill to turn white into black skin? Or to change your eye color? The real problem, which is not talked about is if the risk-benefit balance is rated appropriately. No drug has a unique effect, and side effects range from mild ones to those serious, life risk ones. There is a sort of equivalence between the seriousness of the disease to be cured and the weight acceptable side effects. But when you start giving chemical molecules or supplements in healthy subjects, who decides what is the acceptable level of risk? Who must notify? And who pays when will blow out the iatrogenic diseases, caused by the use of these medicines? The only problem is the information on side effects: if the decision to take or not to take this type of molecule is left to the consumer, then the information cannot just be one that encourages consumption, but it has to be a careful analysis and a full explanation of the effects that certainly cannot be left to manufacturers like it's done today for the cosmetics. The suggestion is very easy and obvious: be careful about what tell you media and advertising, educating to the best attention even your children. Do not buy any drug or dietary supplement without the advice of your doctor.

Fitness Coffee®: a Top Source of Antioxidants

Our daily cups of Fitness Coffee® are not of course substitutes for fruits and vegetables, but are a top source of healthy antioxidants. Two/three cups daily not only help to clear the mind and to boost the basic energy, it also provides 300% more healthful antioxidants than other beverages in the average diet (Swedish scientific study Bearco-Biocare Stockholm).

Antioxidant Benefits

The healthy Fitness Coffee® contains many more antioxidants than the normal coffee: the consumption of more antioxidants may inhibit diseases caused by oxidative processes. The dietary fiber derived from roasted coffee skin is one component that has a high antioxidant content.
The scientists have identified several compounds with antioxidant properties, some studies suggest coffee having other benefits such as added fertility and benefits for those suffering from diabetes. The actual amount needed to be consumed in order to receive the anti-cancer benefits by humans is unknown. How exactly is coffee an antioxidant? It seems that although some coffee beans like green coffee beans may be higher in antioxidants that other more common beans, once they are roasted and heated for consumption, the results are the same regarding the antioxidantal benefits. In any case we suggest:

- to drink not more than 2-3 cups of healthy Fitness Coffee® daily,

- to pay attention to the reactions of our body,

- to do every day about half hour of moderate exercises,

- to eat a balanced diet according to sex and weight (here you can see a sample of salutary and well balanced diet).

health Fitness Coffee® diet

Get fit and a longer life with the Mediterranean diet rich in vegetal ingredients with beneficial properties

Four studies published by the Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg (Sweden) announce this result. Scientists at this Academy have now studied the effects of a Mediterranean diet on old Swedish people. They have used a unique study known as the “H70 study” to compare 70-year-olds who eat a Mediterranean diet with others who have eaten more meat and animal products. The H70 study has studied thousands of 70-year-olds in the Gothenburg region for more than 40 years. The results show that those who eat a Mediterranean diet have a 20% higher chance of living longer. This means in practice that older people who eat a Mediterranean diet live an estimated 2-3 years longer than those who don’t. These results are supported by three further studies into Mediterranean diets and their health effects: one carried out on people in Denmark, the second on people in northern Sweden, and the third on young children. The conclusion of these studies is that a Mediterranean diet is good for a better health in all stages of life. Fitness Coffee, Tea and Barley® can be considered at all effects part of a Mediterranean diet due their beneficial ingredients 100% vegetal and natural. Research studies since the 1950s have shown that a Mediterranean diet, based on a high consumption of vegetal products including the precious Italian Extra Vorgin Oil and a low consumption of animal-based products such as meat and milk, leads to better health and wellness.

 

 

TEA improves the performance of the brain

Recent research has confirmed that those in need of concentration and brain performance than can drink tea or coffee. From these two beverages get the right charge. At least that's what has emerged during recent Italian and international research, the traditional drink could provide enormous potential beneficial for the brain. Take a break and enjoy it in small sips throughout the intense flavor of the tea can be the best choice to ensure the right energy to the brain. In fact, a recent trial, published in the pages of the journal Nutritional Neuroscience, again stressed all the positive characteristics of tea, exalting the virtues and potential unexpected, especially with regard to the cognition and brain performance. Sweeps away the tiredness and the consequent lack of mental clarity, which threatens to undermine the intellectual and professional performance, and gives the brain a revitalization, provides a real recharge your batteries. This is what has emerged from the experiments carried out by the experts, which involved 44 young volunteers, subjecting them to a series of tests and exercises to assess, measure and monitor their performance brain. Assigned exercises and a series of precise tasks during their execution to a group of participants was administered after 20 and 70 minutes, the tea and the other a placebo drink. Analyzing the results, the effect of tea on brain performance was evident: young people who drank tea were found to score higher, both in terms of supervision and concentration. The credit? All or almost of two substances, contained in tea, an amino acid, L-theanine, and caffeine.

Coffee is healthy reducing risk of cancer and diabetes

ScienceDaily (June 9, 2010) — Scientists are reporting new evidence that drinking coffee may help prevent diabetes and that caffeine may be the ingredient largely responsible for this effect. Their findings, among the first animal studies to demonstrate this apparent link, appear in ACS' Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. Fumihiko Horio and colleagues note that past studies have suggested that regular coffee drinking may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes. The disease affects millions in the United States and is on the rise worldwide. However, little of that evidence comes from studies on lab animals used to do research that cannot be done in humans. The scientists fed either water or coffee to a group of laboratory mice commonly used to study diabetes. Coffee consumption prevented the development of high-blood sugar and also improved insulin sensitivity in the mice, thereby reducing the risk of diabetes. Coffee also caused a cascade of other beneficial changes in the fatty liver and inflammatory adipocytokines related to a reduced diabetes risk. Additional lab studies showed that caffeine may be "one of the most effective anti-diabetic compounds in coffee," the scientists say. The above story is reprinted from materials provided by American Chemical Society, via EurekAlert!, a service of AAAS. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length. For further information, please contact the source cited above.

It's Carlotta Galeone, a young researcher at the Institute of Pharmacological Research Mario Negri in Milan, the winner of the award named Professor Giulio Macccaro doctor, biologist and biostatistician who died in 1977. Carlotta Galeone is the author of a study on cancer and use of the coffee. The research, published in 'Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention', shows that those who consumed 4 or more cups of coffee a day have a risk of cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx reduced by 39% compared to non coffee drinkers. The research, based on a combined analysis of 9 studies conducted in Europe and America, has covered a total of 5139 cases and 9028 controls. "This study - said Silvio Garattini, director of the Mario Negri - give us the confirmation that the coffee has a beneficial role in human cancers of the oral cavity. Considering the considerable consumption of coffee worldwide and the high incidence of oral cancers, this positive effect is of major importance in terms of public health.

1. Flavored Coffees (article by Dr. I. Tanina, co-inventor of Fitness Coffee®): the tradition to add certain flavors (or substances) to the coffee drinks is very old. There are two ways to add flavors to our cup of coffee. The flavors can be added after brewing the coffee (and here the tradition is very wide and old, overall in Mid and Far East using natural ingredients like hazelnut, cinnamon, chocolate, nut, liqueur, etc.).Or the flavors can be added before brewing (and here normally are chemical extracts, mineral salts, vitamins, guarana, thaurin, caffeine, etc). The inventors of the FITNESS COFFEE®, have considered the facts very carefully and strong of their experience in the italian espresso tradition, have done a product considerably stronger, healthy and delicious than those coffee based beverage containing artificial flavors or other substances. "...no flavoring used in the flavored coffees is entirely natural, and many are, in the technical sense, entirely artificial..."(citation from a Kenneth Davis's book). But in the FITNESS COFFEE® (international patent) the flavoring components are 100% natural officinal plants and spices and for this reason the product is real safe and healthy. The healthy effects of the sixteen medicinal plants go directly in the cup during the brewing process, there are no chemical or artificial ingredients in FITNESS COFFEE®. This is the best warranty for the product."...so even in this relatively artificially defined arena, specialty coffees still exhibit an individualism absent in most commercial products. The taste issue is easily pin-pointed: flavorings added to whole-bean coffees leave a flat, metallic aftertaste. With some flavors this aftertaste is barely discernable; with others it is inescapable. And recall that the effect of a well-brewed cup of coffee does not stop at the point the cup is empty. The experience rings in the senses, humming just below the surface of consciousness, for minutes, perhaps even hours, mingling agreeably with the stimulation of the caffeine. However immediate the first burst of pleasure from a good flavored coffee, its aftertaste never quite delivers the same resonance the aftertaste of an unflavored coffee does"(citation from a Kenneth Davis's book).In FITNESS COFFEE®, where the aftertaste is persistent and delicious for long time, everybody can feel that it gives a much more flavored cup than any of the artificially flavored, mineral and vitamins added coffees sold widely in the world. The situation, after the invention of the FITNESS COFFEE®, is real new in the coffee world panorama because it contains only real medicinal herbs and spices grounded and blended with top best quality coffee to become a salutary drink of espresso type or of other type like american filter coffee, turkish coffee, japan coffee, etc. Fitness coffee is suitable to your personal taste depending on to method of preparation, it offers many healthy benefits including a help for your daily diet.
2. Green Tea, an ingredient of Fitness Coffee®: a combination of caffeine and 90 mg of EGCG (epigallocatechin gallate), the potent antioxidant found in green tea, raised metabolism rates, found a US 1999 study. Green tea provide also beneficial antioxidants. Green tea contains, among others, the cancer-fighting flavonoid epigallocatechin gallate (ECGC). ECGC is unique in that it seems to battle cancer at all stages, from thwarting chemical carcinogens, to suppressing the spread of tumors. ECGC is as much as 100 times more powerful an antioxidant as vitamin C, and 25 times more powerful than vitamin E. ECGC also may account for the antibacterial properties of green tea. How they work: Caffeine helps speed up your heart rate. The faster your heart beats, the more calories you burn. EGCG works in a similar way, but instead of revving up your heart, it causes your brain and nervous system to run more quickly — again helping you burn more calories. In studies, researchers found that a combination of caffeine and a 90-mg dose of EGCG taken three times a day can help you burn an extra 80 calories a day. And that's just when your body's at rest. A study conducted by the Canadian government found that soldiers who consumed caffeine in the 12 hours prior to a physical-fitness test not only were able to work out longer before becoming exhausted, but also consumed more oxygen while working out. The body's oxygen requirements are directly related to the speed of your metabolism, so the more oxygen you use, the more calories you burn.
3. Italy-USA study on the Curry Nov. 11th Milian-Adnkronos) Curry is elixir of life for the brain. Curcuma 'ignites a family of genes called vitagens and protects neurons from degenerative diseases which still do not have specific treatment, such as Alzheimer'. The secret of long life of the population of India, where Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases have an incidence 7 times less than the USA, was discovered by an Italian-American study conducted by the researchers of the Neurological Sciences Institute of the Catania National Research Council, directed by Giovanni Scapagnini, in collaboration with the Rockefeller Neuroscience Institute of Washington (some ingredients in Fitness Coffee are also curry components: zingiber officinalis, curcuma longa and ceylon cinnamon). See other related benefits at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turmeric
4.Yerba mate (a Fitness Coffee's ingredient). There are 196 volatile chemical compounds found in the Yerba Mate plant. Of those, 144 are also found in green tea. Yerba Mate contains 11 polyphenols. Polyphenols are a group of phytochemicals. Phytochemicals (phyto- meaning plant) are compounds that act as powerful antioxidants. Yerba Mate leaves also contain saponins. Saponins are phytochemicals that have been found to specifically stimulate the immune system and aid the body in protecting against disease.
5.Cinnamomum zeylanicum (an ingredient of the Fitness Coffee) and their antioxidant activity (J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Mar 8;54(5):1672-9. Related Articles, Links - Jayaprakasha GK, Ohnishi-Kameyama M, Ono H, Yoshida M, Jaganmohan Rao L. - Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore, India). Defatted cinnamon fruit powder was successively extracted with benzene ethyl acetate, acetone, MeOH, and water. The concentrated water extract contained the maximum amount of phenolics and showed the highest antioxidant activities. Hence, it was fractionated by Diaion HP-20SS, Diaion HP-20, and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies. It gave five purified compounds, the purities of which were analyzed by HPLC. Compounds 1-5 were identified as 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (protocatechuic acid), epicatechin-(2beta-->O-7,4beta-->8)-epicatechin-(4beta-->8)-epicatechin (cinnamtannin B-1), 4-[2,3-dihydro-3-(hydroxymethyl)-5-(3-hydroxypropyl)-7-(methoxy)benzofuranyl]-2-methoxyphenyl beta-d-glucopyranoside (urolignoside), quercetin-3-O-(6-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl)-beta-d-glucopyranoside (rutin), and quercetin-3-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranoside by using extensive spectral studies. The antioxidant activities of purified compounds were screened for their antioxidative potential using beta-carotene-linoleate and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl model systems. All of the compounds showed antioxidant and radical scavenging activities. This is the first report of the isolation and identification of nonvolatile constituents and as well as antioxidant activities from cinnamon fruits.
6. US study shows DECAFFEINATED COFFEE IS BAD FOR THE HEART (Dallas, Nov. 14th 2005 (Adnkronos): decaf may not be good for you as it can transform into an enemy of a healthy heart. US experts from the American Heart Association Congress, being held in Dallas, recommend paying attention to decaf. The capacity of decaffeinated coffee to ignite fatty acids causing an increase of LDL 'bad' cholesterol in the blood (we do not use decaf coffee but a naturally low in caffeine blend of arabica and robusta coffee).
7. Italian ISTAT figures show 33% of the Italians OVERWEIGHT and 9% OBESE. Milan, Nov. 18th, 4 out of 10 Italians battle with extra kilos and in detail, 33.6% of the over 18 population is overweight and 9% obese. Those living in Southern Italy have more weight problems (46% for the mainland regions and 45.6% for the Island regions) while the weight problem is less widespread in the Central and Northern Regions (41.6% for the Central Regions, 38.5% for Northwest Italy and 42.6% for North-eastern regions). This is a profile included in an ISTAT Report 'Lifestyles and Health Conditions 2003' (our product containing for example vegetal substances like Citrus Aurantium and Green thea that can be useful within a balanced mediterranean diet against body fat accumulation increasing metabolism).
8. Coffee a top source of healthy antioxidants (Associated press, Sept.. 12 2005): when the Ink Spots sang “I love the java jive and it loves me” in 1940, they could not have known how right they were. Coffee not only helps clear the mind and perk up the energy, it also provides more healthful antioxidants than any other food or beverage in the American diet, according to a study released Sunday. Of course, too much coffee can make people jittery and even raise cholesterol levels, so food experts stress moderation. The findings by Joe A. Vinson, a chemistry professor at the University of Scranton, in Pennsylvania, give a healthy boost to the warming beverage.The point is, people are getting the most antioxidants from beverages, as opposed to what you might think,” Vinson said in a telephone interview. Antioxidants, which are thought to help battle cancer and provide other health benefits, are abundant in grains, tomatoes and many other fruits and vegetables. Vinson said he was researching tea and cocoa and other foods and decided to study coffee, too. His team analyzed the antioxidant content of more than 100 different food items, including vegetables, fruits, nuts, spices, oils and common beverages. They then used Agriculture Department data on typical food consumption patterns to calculate how much antioxidant each food contributes to a person’s diet. They concluded that the average adult consumes 1,299 milligrams of antioxidants daily from coffee. The closest competitor was tea at 294 milligrams. Rounding out the top five sources were bananas, 76 milligrams; dry beans, 72 milligrams; and corn, 48 milligrams. According to the Agriculture Department, the typical adult American drinks 1.64 cups of coffee daily. That does not mean coffee is a substitute for fruit and vegetables. “Unfortunately, consumers are still not eating enough fruits and vegetables, which are better for you from an overall nutritional point of view due to their higher content of vitamins, minerals and fiber,” Vinson said. Obviously if you drink pure coffee blended with the most famous healthy herbs and spices, you love more yourself.
9. Coffee is 'health drink' and is good for the heart (says Italian dietician Dr. C. Trombetti of Humanitas Gavazzeni Institute) but avoid instant-coffee. There is sound scientific reason to enjoy your morning espresso without worrying about the health effects. Coffee can be good for you - she says - and the stronger, the better. That is why she recommends an espresso rather than a very un-Italian cup of instant-coffee. Brewed coffee contains tannin and antioxidants, which are good for the heart and arteries, she says. It can relieve headaches. It is good for the liver - and can help prevent cirrhosis and gallstones. And the caffeine in coffee can reduce the risk of asthma attacks - and help improve circulation within the heart. There is no denying that coffee is not for everyone. If you drink too much it can increase nervousness, and cause rapid heartbeat and trembling hands. Pregnant women, heart patients, and anyone with a stomach ulcer are usually advised to avoid it. And even Dr Trombetti says no one should drink more than three or four cups a day."
10. Coffee and fitness (suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced liver injury in rats. Sakamoto W, Nishihira J, Fujie K, Mizuno S, Ozaki M, Yukawa S. - Department of Biochemistry, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan). To clarify the relationship between coffee and fitness, we investigated the effect of coffee on weight gain and total cholesterol as well as production of cytokines and activities of GOT (aspartate aminotransferase; EC 2.6.1.1.) and GPT (alanine aminotransferase; EC 2.6.1.2.) as injected lipopolysaccharides. Forty-eight male Wistar rats were divided into three dietary groups (n=16), which were fed a stock diet (control group), the diet supplemented with freeze-dried coffee of 6.2 g/kg (0.62% coffee group), and the diet supplemented with freeze-dried coffee of 13.6 g/kg (1.36% coffee group). It was confirmed by HPLC analysis that the serum caffeine concentrations in both coffee groups became significantly higher in 140 days after the start of feeding. No significant differences in body weight and serum cholesterol were found between the coffee groups and control group, though the coffee groups tended to be somewhat high at cholesterol level. Activities of serum GOT and GPT increased at 2 h after LPS injection, but in the coffee groups were significantly suppressed (p<0.05). However, the coffee feeding could not suppress the increases of serum cytokine (TNF-alpha and IL-6) levels. These results suggest that coffee and fitness-coffee may serve as a preventive against liver injury.
11. Bad custom adding extra caffeine in food products Coca Cola, Pepsi and other giant Companies are disclosing now the caffeine content on their labels. According to international rules the contant should not be more than 0,02%. But during the last years the caffeine is been added to many foods and beverages overall to energy and slimming drinks. In some of these is really too much. Furthermore in many products there are other ingredients containing caffeine like guarana extract, kola nut and others. Many countries and the USA Food and Drug Administration have not still limited the addiction of caffeine in the food products, but it is very probably that in no long time some decisions or laws will be issued related to the free use of caffeine in the beverages. In fact many scientific studies worldwide have told that the excessive caffeine consumption is a real problem fo the health.

Hoodia cactus not accepted by FDA and not present in Fitness Coffee12. "Slim Coffee" false claims

The marketers of “Slim Coffee” - an instant coffee product purportedly containing hoodia - have agreed to settle Federal Trade Commission charges that their advertising falsely claimed that their product would enable its users to lose significant amounts of weight without diet or exercise. Diet Coffee, Inc. and its principals, David Stocknoff and David Attarian, based in New York City, ran television ads claiming that drinking Slim Coffee had been “clinically proven” to cause weight loss of “up to 5 pounds a week and up to 20 pounds a month. “There’s no need to change your eating habits or what you eat,” the ads claimed. “Just replace your coffee with Slim Coffee and you will start to see results. It’s that easy and all-natural.” According to a complaint filed by the FTC in federal district court, the weight-loss claims for Slim Coffee were false and unsupported by any reliable scientific studies, in violation of the FTC Act. Among other things, the FTC’s complaint alleged that neither Slim Coffee nor any of its individual ingredients, including hoodia, would enable its users to lose as much as two to five pounds per week, without reducing caloric intake or increasing physical activity.Under the proposed settlement, Diet Coffee, Inc. and its principals are prohibited from claiming that any product enables users to lose substantial weight without reducing caloric intake or increasing physical activity. The order also prohibits them from representing that any product or service causes weight loss, causes users to lose any specified amount of weight, reduces or eliminates fat, reduces or curbs appetite, or increases metabolism, or making any other health-related benefit or efficacy representation unless it is true, not misleading, and substantiated by reliable scientific evidence. In addition, they are prohibited from misrepresenting the existence, contents, validity, results, conclusions, or interpretations of any test or study concerning such products. Slim Coffee was advertised on the Internet, radio, and television, including on Oxygen, Fox Reality Channel, A&E Television, The CW, WE, and Bravo. Ads also have appeared in magazines and Sunday newspaper supplements, including SmartSource by News America Marketing FSI, Inc.

13. CANBERRA (Australia)

Just one can of the popular stimulant energy drink Red Bull can increase the risk of heart attack or stroke, even in young people, Australian medical researchers said on Friday. The caffeine-loaded beverage, popular with university students and adrenaline sport fans to give them "wings", caused the blood to become sticky, a pre-cursor to cardiovascular problems such as stroke. "One hour after they drank Red Bull, (their blood systems) were no longer normal. They were abnormal like we would expect in a patient with cardiovascular disease," Scott Willoughby, lead researcher from the Cardiovascular Research Centre at the Royal Adelaide Hospital, told the Australian newspaper. Red Bull Australia spokeswoman Linda Rychter said the report would be assessed by the company's head office in Austria. "The study does not show effects which would go beyond that of drinking a cup of coffee. Therefore, the reported results were to be expected and lie within the normal physiological range," Rychter told Reuters. Willoughby and his team tested the cardiovascular systems of 30 young adults one hour before and one hour after consuming one 250ml can of sugar-free Red Bull. The results showed "normal people develop symptoms normally associated with cardiovascular disease" after consuming the drink, created in the 1980s by Austrian entrepreneur Dietrich Mateschitz based on a similar Thai energy drink. Red Bull is banned in Norway, Uruguay and Denmark because of health risks listed on its cans, but the company last year sold 3.5 billion cans in 143 countries. One can contains 80 mg of caffeine, around the same as a normal cup of brewed coffee. The Austria-based company, whose marketing says "Red Bull gives you wings", sponsors Formula 1 race cars and extreme sport events around the world, but warns consumers not to drink more than two cans a day. Rychter said Red Bull could only have such global sales because health authorities across the world had concluded the drink was safe to consume. But Willoughby said Red Bull could be deadly when combined with stress or high blood pressure, impairing proper blood vessel function and possibly lifting the risk of blood clotting. "If you have any predisposition to cardiovascular disease, I'd think twice about drinking it," he said. -- Reuters.

14. Not-So Healthy Energy Drinks

(article of public utility drawn from www.kidzworld.com): there are a ton of energy drinks on the market today that promise to make you feel more alert, happy and on your toes. But are the companies making these miracle conscious telling you all there is to know about their products? Do you even know what you are paying for when forking over the big bucks for these designer drinks? Well, read on to find out!
The first concern about designer energy drinks is that no one is responsible for what is put in them. Companies can mix whatever they want without anyone checking out whether it's safe. It wasn't until very recently that scientists started to prove that some herbal energizers can be dangerous to your health. And although most of these beverages don't have enough of any one herb to do you harm, mixing these herbs with other medication can often be very dangerous to your health. If you're on something like a prescription acne medicine or some sort of antibiotic, you often don't know how that will react to your designer drink. Another health drink scam has to do with what you are paying for. Often you are paying twice as much for these glorified fruit juices and water because of their crazy healing properties. But guess what? Most of these drinks don't have enough of the healing ingredients to have any effect on your body. Often there is barely half of the recommended dose of herbs like ginseng, gingko biloba and echinacea. Yet, you usually pay close to double the price of regular fruit juice or water for these fancier energy drinks. Can you say rip off? So the next time you reach for a SoBe, Red Bull, Snapple or other designer health drink, take a look at what you're paying for. In our products we do not add caffeine and nor we use decaffeinated coffee or instant coffee (see above art. 6, 9, 11)
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15. Red Bull drink lifts stroke risk , says Australian study CANBERRA (Aug 15, 2008): Just one can of the popular stimulant energy drink Red Bull can increase the risk of heart attack or stroke, even in young people, Australian medical researchers said on Friday. The caffeine-loaded beverage, popular with university students and adrenaline sport fans to give them "wings", caused the blood to become sticky, a pre-cursor to cardiovascular problems such as stroke. "One hour after they drank Red Bull, (their blood systems) were no longer normal. They were abnormal like we would expect in a patient with cardiovascular disease," Scott Willoughby, lead researcher from the Cardiovascular Research Centre at the Royal Adelaide Hospital, told the Australian newspaper. Red Bull Australia spokeswoman Linda Rychter said the report would be assessed by the company's head office in Austria. "The study does not show effects which would go beyond that of drinking a cup of coffee. Therefore, the reported results were to be expected and lie within the normal physiological range," Rychter told Reuters. Willoughby and his team tested the cardiovascular systems of 30 young adults one hour before and one hour after consuming one 250ml can of sugar-free Red Bull. The results showed "normal people develop symptoms normally associated with cardiovascular disease" after consuming the drink, created in the 1980s by Austrian entrepreneur Dietrich Mateschitz based on a similar Thai energy drink. Red Bull is banned in Norway, Uruguay and Denmark because of health risks listed on its cans, but the company last year sold 3.5 billion cans in 143 countries. One can contains 80 mg of caffeine, around the same as a normal cup of brewed coffee. The Austria-based company, whose marketing says "Red Bull gives you wings", sponsors Formula 1 race cars and extreme sport events around the world, but warns consumers not to drink more than two cans a day. Rychter said Red Bull could only have such global sales because health authorities across the world had concluded the drink was safe to consume. But Willoughby said Red Bull could be deadly when combined with stress or high blood pressure, impairing proper blood vessel function and possibly lifting the risk of blood clotting. "If you have any predisposition to cardiovascular disease, I'd think twice about drinking it," he said. - Reuters.

16. Herbal Drink Dangers The FDA is recalling 13 types of herbal drinks made by the Blue Light Company because they contain an acid that can cause kidney failure.But it's not just Blue Light products, consumers need to be careful with all energy drinks. In them things like St. John's Wort, Kava, Guarana, Taurine, Ephedrine, and a variety of vitamins and herbs promising to soothe aches and pains and cure everything from impotence to unhappiness. Sure these drinks pack a powerful punch; they're full of stimulants. Most of the ingredients are artificial, but some of the side effects can be pretty sobering."Ephedrine is very powerful," says registered dietitian Roberta Terry. Powerful enough she says to cause health problems like high blood pressure, heart attack, stroke, seizures and on this "Speed Stack" label it even warns against death. Terry says, "Why would anyone want to drink this when on the label it says ‘death’?". But lots of people are drinking these products, especially young people. Even marketing giants like Pepsi, Coca-Cola, Snapple, Red Bull and Procter&Gamble are cashing in on the latest drink craze. They may give you a quick jolt, but because the stimulants don't have FDA approval, you better study the label before you take a swig. The U.S. FDA (Food and Drug Administration) is warning customers for 25 different weight-loss products, warning that they contain illegal ingredients that could pose major health problems. After investigating companies linked to selling illegal weight-loss pills, the FDA found undeclared active pharmaceutical ingredients in 25 products. The illegal substances include sibutramine (a controlled substance), rimonabant (a drug not cleared for marketing in the United States), phenytoin (an antiseizure medication), and phenolphthalein (a solution used in chemical experiments and a suspected cancer-causing agent). Sibutramine has been linked to high blood pressure, seizures, palpitations, heart attack, and stroke. It could interfere with medications you’re taking, too. Rimonabant is legal in Europe but has been associated with two deaths, increased suicidal thoughts, and depression. “These tainted weight-loss products pose a great risk to public health because they contain undeclared ingredients and, in some cases, contain prescription drugs in amounts that greatly exceed their maximum recommended dosages,” says Janet Woodcock, MD, director of the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, in the warning issued yesterday. The agency warns consumers not to buy or take the following products:

• Fatloss Slimming
• Japan Lingzhi 24 Hours Diet
• 999 Fitness Essence
• Imelda Perfect Slim
• Perfect Slim
• ProSlim Plus
• Slim Express 360
• Superslim
• Venom Hyperdrive 3.0
• 2 Day Diet
• 5x Imelda Perfect Slimming
• 8 Factor Diet
• Extrim Plus
• Lida Daidaihua
• Perfect Slim 5x
• Royal Slimming Formula
• Slimtech
• TripleSlim
• 3x Slimming Power
• 3 Day Diet
• 7 Diet Day/Night Formula
• GMP
• Miaozi Slim Capsules
• Phyto Shape
• Slim 3 in 1
• Somotrim
• Zhen de Shou

But a part these outlaw products, for the final consumers the more common problems in GVM's opinion are created by the uncontrolled and false claims and promises of weight loss particularly common on the Internet but also on the advertising and even on the products: the consumers are not enough informed and protected by the Governments.

17. Scientific studies supporting antioxidant and relaxation activity of Green and Red Tea, ingredients of Fitness Tea®:

- Joubert E, Winterton P, Britz TJ, Gelderblom WCA, "Antioxidant and Pro-antioxidant Activities of Aqueous Extracts and Crude Polyphenolic Fractions of Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis)", J. Agric. Food Chem. 2005;53:10260-10267

- Schmandke H, "Antioxidantien in Rooibostee: Dihydrochalkone und Flavonoide", Ernährungs- Umschau 52 (2005) Heft 1:18-20

- Wang J, Mazza G,"Effects of anthocyanins and other phenolic compounds on the production of tumor necrosis factor in LPS/IFN-gamma-activated RAW 264,7 macrophages", J Agric Food

- Chen CC, Chow MP, Huang WC, Lin YC, Chang YJ,"Flavonoids inhibit tumor necrosis factoralpha-induced upregulation of intracelluar adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in respiratory epithelial cells through achivoter protein-1 and nuclear factor-kappa B: Structure-activity relationships", Mol Pharmacol 2004;66:683-693

- von Gadow, Joubert A, Hausmann CF, "Comparison of the antioxidative activity of aspalathin with that of other plant phenols of rooibos tea (Aspalathus linearis)", J. Agric. Food Chem. 1997;45:632

- Hesseling, Klopper, Van Heerden – The effect of rooibos tea on iron absorption. The South African Medical Journal 1979 Apr 14: 55(16):631-2

- A review of the bioactivity of South African herbal teas – McKay DL, Blumberg JB. USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Phytother Res. 2006.

- E. Joubert and D. Ferreira – Antioxidants of rooibos tea – a possible explanation for its health giving properties? The South African Journal of Food Science and Nutrition, University Orange Free State 1996: Vol 8, No. 3: pp79-83

- Laurice Erickson. (2003). “Health benefits of Rooibos. Red bush Tea from South Africa”. Herbalgram (The journal of the American Botanical Council) 59.

Human Studies

- Actions of black tea and rooibos on iron status of primary school children – Petronella Breet, H Salome Kruger, Johann C Jerling, Welma Oosthuizen. Potchefstroom Institute of Nutrition July 2005.

Animal Studies

- O. Inanami, T. Asanuma, N. Inukai, T. Jin, S. Shimokawa, N. Kasai, M. Nakano, F. Sato, M. Kuwara. (1995). “The suppression of age-related accumulation of lipid peroxides in rat brain by administration of Rooibos tea (Aspalathus linearis)”. Neuroscience Letters 196 85-88.

- J.L Marnewick, E Joubert, P Swart, F van der Westhuzen and W.C Gelderblom – Modulation of Hepatic Drug Metabolizing Enzymes and Oxidative Status by Rooibos and Honeybush, Green and Black Teas in Rats. – Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2003, Vol 51, pp8113-8119.

Supporting data

- Effect of brewing method on antioxidant activity of rooibos tea – C Fajardo-Lira, Dept of Family Consumer Sciences, California State University. Presentation to IFT Annual Meeting July 15- 20, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA 2005.

- J. Kucharska, O. Ulicná, A. Gvozdjáková, Z. Sumbalová, O. Vancová P. Bozek, M. Nakano, M. Greksák. (2004). “Regeneration of Coenzyme Q9 Redox State and Inhibition of Oxidative Stress by Rooibos Tea (Aspalathus linearis) Administration in Carbon Tetrachloride Liver Damage”. Physiological research 53: 515-521.

- K.L. Lindsey, M.L. Motsei, and A.K. Jäger. (2006). “Screening of South African Food Plants for Antioxidant Activity”. Journal of Food Science Vol. 67, Nr. 6.

- Joubert, Winterton, Britz and Gelderblom – Antioxidant and Pro-oxidant activities of aqueous extracts and crude polyphenolic fractions of rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) J.Agric Food Chem 53(26) Nov 22, 2005.

- Steenkamp, AC Fernandes, and CEJ van Rensburg. (2004). “Antioxidant scavenging potential of South African export herbal teas”. South African Journal of Botany 70(4): 660-663. 47

- Bramati L, Minnoggio M, Gardana C, Simonetti P, Mauri P, Pietta P, Quantitative characterisation of flavonoids compounds in rooibos tea (Aspalathus linearis) by LCUV/ DAD./Agric Food Chem 2002 Sep 25-25(20);5513-9.

- Snyckers FO, Salemi G – Quercetin as the major in vitro active component in rooibos tea. JSA Chem Inst 1974: 27:5-7 (ref in No.5 www.herbsforafrica.co.za/features/recent-herbresearch)

- H. Schulz, E Joubert, W. Schütze – Quantification of quality parameters for reliable evaluation of green rooibos (Aspalathus linearis). European Food Research & Technology. ISSN 1438- 2377. Issue 216, No. 6, June 2003 pp539-543.

- Joubert E, Winterton P, Britz TJ, Gelderblom WCA, "Antioxidant and Pro-antioxidant Activities of Aqueous Extracts and Crude Polyphenolic Fractions of Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis)", J. Agric. Food Chem. 2005;53:10260-10267

- Schmandke H, "Antioxidantien in Rooibos tee: Dihydrochalkone und Flavonoide", Ernährungs-Umschau 52 (2005) Heft 1:18-20

- Wang J, Mazza G,"Effects of anthocyanins and other phenolic compounds on the production of tumor necrosis factor in LPS/IFN-gamma-activated RAW 264,7 macrophages", J Agric Food Chem 2002;50:4183-4189

- Chen CC, Chow MP, Huang WC, Lin YC, Chang YJ,"Flavonoids inhibit tumor necrosis factoralpha- induced upregulation of intracelluar adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in respiratory epithelial cells through achivoter protein-1 and nuclear factor-kappa B: Structure-activity relationships", Mol Pharmacol 2004;66:683-693

- von Gadow, Joubert A, Hausmann CF, "Comparison of the antioxidative activity of aspalathin with that of other plant phenols of rooibos tea (Aspalathus linearis)", J. Agric. Food Chem. 1997;45:632

- Kunishiro K, Tai A, Yamamoto I, "Effects of Rooibos Tea Extract on Anitgen-specific Antibody Production and Cytokine Generation in Vitro and in Vivo", Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 65(10);2001:2137-2145

- Nakano M, Nakashima H, Itoh Y, "Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Activity of Oligosaccharides from Rooibos Tea (Aspalathus linearis) Extracts In Vitro", Leukemia 1997 Apr;11 Suppl 3:128-130

- E Joubert, J Marnewick – Antimutagenicity of South African Herbal Teas. HerbalGram, The Journal of the American Botanical Council Issue:59, pp34-45.

- Rooibos Tea and Health – van Wyk, Prof Dept of Botany, Rand Afrikaans University. Presentation to the 28th Annual Conference of the South African Association of Botanists 2000, Rhodes University. (summary at www.herbsforafrica.co.za/features/recent-herbresearch.

- Ferreira, Marais, Joubert, Steenkamp -Rooibos Tea as a likely health food supplement – University of Orange Free State and Infruitec, Stellenbosch, South Africa 1996. Research Papers on Rooibos(Aspalathus linearis), published 1997, Rooibos Ltd South Africa. (ref10, Fundamental Foods for Health journal)

- Rooibos Tea – Dr Betty Karmen, Alternative Medicine Magazine, November 2000, pp70-71.

- Ferreira D, Marais C, Steenkamp JA, Joubert E. (1995). “Rooibos tea as a likely health food supplement”. Proceeding of Recent Development of Technologies on Fundamental Foods for Health Supporting Documentation

- Public analysts report Leicestershire County Council August 1999. Lab reference 997515.48

- Letter and laboratory report from Professor A. M Meyers, Division of Nephrology, 24th May 1883. See attached. “We have noticed a striking decrease in the frequency of recurrent stones in patients with hyperoxaluria when standard tea is substituted for rooibos tea. “

- Korean Society of Food, Science and Technology: Seoul, Korea 73-88. Tè Rooibos

- Herbal Remedies/ Heilpflanzen, Version 5, 2003, medpharm GmbH Scientific Publishers, Stuttgart, Germany

- Anwarul Hassan Gilani, et al., "Antispasmodic Effects of Rooibos Tea (Aspalathus linearis) is Mediated Predominantly through K+ - Channel Activation", Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2006 Nov ;99 (5):365-73

- Snyckers FO, Salemi G, "Studies of South African Medicinal Plants. Part I. Quercetin as the Major In Vitro Active Component of Rooibos Tea", Journal of the South African Chemical Institute, Vol. XXVII, 1974

Other scientific news about the coffee with officinal herbs and spices at: http://www.fitnesscoffee.ro/News.htm

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